Sacrum - Paintings

Obrazy z serii Sacrum nawiązują do najlepszych przykładów arcydzieł sztuki światowej i wizualną interpretacją obrazów wielkich mistrzów takich jak Rafael czy Tycjan. Obrazy te były tworzone przez prof. Z. Leś od 1983 do 2020 roku. Obrazy tej serii stanowią swoistą wykładnię teologiczną ikoniczne hermeneutyki opartej na badaniach nad rozumieniem w naszym instytucie SQJRIU. Nie istnieje żadne naukowe opracowanie dotyczące złożoności interpretacyjnej dzieł sztuki sakralnej malarstwa europejskiego w nieznacznym nawet stopniu ukazujące problem „profanacji” w odniesieniu do niekiedy bardzo świadomie montowanego „collage” zła w koegzystencji dobra, piękna spowitego zgrzybiałym nalotem brzydoty czy też prawdy w upiornymuściskufałszu i zakłamania. Manipulatorska moc muzeów i galerii powinna przynajmniej niewielkim stopniu zostać odtajniona dzięki naukowym badaniom naszego instytutu naukowego. Komentarze do poszczególnych dzieł sztuki parafraząanaliz historyków sztuki. Dla nas Katolików jest czymś obraźliwym jeżeli tak na wystawie jak i w albumie świadomie zaciera się granice między sacrum i profanum, i musimy być poddawani terrorowiestetykipewnych mniejszości.



1. El Greco “Holy Trinity”    (Trójca Święta”)

The Holy Trinity is one of Greco’s most popular works. In the painting, the dead body of Christ is seen in the arms of God (the Father) who is visibly broken and upset. A traditional Eastern Miter adorns the head of the Father. The dead weight of Jesus’ tortured and crucified body is captured perfectly as the elongated figure of Christ’ body is laid at an awkward angle. There is a dove overhead, which many interprets as the symbolic representation of the Holy Spirit. The painting is also populated by six grieving angels surrounding the scene in a ‘V’ formation and cherubims at Christ’s feet. The use of diverse colours in the robes emphasizes the contrasting range of the colour palette selected by Greco for this painting.


2. Tycjan „Madonna with Child and four saints”    („Maria z dzieciątkiem i czterema świętymi”)

The painting “Madonna and Child with Four Saints” depicts Madonna and Child with saints: St John the Baptist, Paul, Mary Magdalene and Hieronymus.


3. Ivan Kramskoi „Christ in the wilderness”     (“Chrystus na pustyni”)  

The subject of the picture is taken from the New Testament, the temptation of Christ in the desert, where He retired for 40 days after His baptism. Christ by Kramskoy does not look like a King, but a suffering, restless, and doubting person. There is already in His face both humility and acceptance of His fate. The horizon line divides the picture into two worlds: a cold, lifeless desert and a rising dawn. This glow of a new day seems to proclaim the victory of light. The tightly clenched hands of Christ are located exactly at the junction of the worlds — with these hands the new life will be created. Christ’s feet are wounded on stones, they make you feel as if you are touching something that hurts. Bloody feet bring their element to the subject; looking at them, we understand that the morning reflections were preceded by a sleepless night, a long restless way through the darkness. Dawn is coming — and this path is coming to its end.


4. El Greco „The Disrobing of Christ”     (Obnażenie Chrystusa z szat”)   

The painting shows Christ looking up to Heaven with an expression of serenity; His idealized figure seems segregated from the other people and the violence surrounding him. A figure dressed in black in the background points at Christ accusingly, while two others argue over who will have His garments. A man in green to Christ's left holds Him firmly with a rope and is about to rip off His robe in preparation for his crucifixion. At the lower right, a man in yellow bends over the cross and drills a hole to facilitate the insertion of a nail to be driven through Christ's feet. The radiant face of the Savior is violently juxtaposed to the coarse figures of the executioners, who are amassed around Him creating an impression of disturbance with their movements, their gestures, and lances.


5. Jacopo Pontormo  “Deposition from the Cross”         (Zdjęcie z krzyża”)

This painting represents the transportation of Christ toward his Father’s merciful embrace. The colours are those seen by the mind experiencing a vision of God. In a whirl of brightly colored fabric and bodies in motion, a heavy and pale dead body that is Christ rests atop unstable shoulders and in unsteady hands of another man. Christ’s legs are draped over the shoulders of a man on tiptoes, almost beckoning the viewer of the altarpiece to help carry Christ’s body that has been heavied with sin. Mary is present in this work, and she can be seen slightly larger than the other figures. The position she is in along with her facial expression suggests that she is displaying the late medieval concept of “the swooning Virgin”. Her near petrified face looks as if she is about to faint. The lighting, the elongated limbs, and the over dramatic facial expressions are all typical of early mannerist works.




1. El Greco “Holy Trinity”



2. Tycjan „Madonna with Child and four saints”                          3. I. Kramskoj „Christ in the wilderness”



1. El Greco „The Disrobing of Christ”                5. Pontormo “Deposition from the Cross”




6. Andrea del Sarto  “Assumption of the Virgin”     (Wniebowzięcie Maryi Panny”)  

Heaven and earth divide this picture into two parts. Above, the Virgin Mary ascends into heaven, helped by a group of angels. Below, the Apostles marvel at the event, as St. Thomas peers into Mary’s grave to check that her body is no longer in there. Saints Nicholas and Margaret kneel in front of the scene. The figure of the standing Apostle is serving as link between Heaven and earth.

The painting is typical of the High Renaissance in its rigid composition. 


7. Govanni Bellini  Madonna with Saints     (“Madonna z Dzieciątkiem i Świętymi”)

In this painting the Virgin sits enthroned with the infant Jesus lifting His little hands to bless to worshipers. An angel at the foot of the altar softly plays the violin, while the saints stand quietly at either side of the throne. St. Peter with his key and book, St Catherine with the palm of martyrdom and the broken wheel, St Lucy and St Jerome, the scholar who translated the Bible into Latin, and whom Bellini therefore represented as reading a book. Bellini’s Madonna is painted with a great dignity and repose in comparison to many Madonnas with saints who have been painted before and after.   


8. Rafael “The Sistine Madonna”     (Madonna Sykstyńska“)

In the painting the Madonna, holding the Christ Child and flanked by Saint Sixtus and Saint Barbara, stands on clouds before dozens of obscured putti, while two distinctive winged putti rest on their elbows beneath her. A prominent element within the painting, the winged angels beneath Mary are famous in their own right. The angels of this nature are known as putti.

Raphael's use of the curtain in this picture invoked a device that had been employed by a number of the Old Masters as a trompe-l'oeil way of drawing the viewer into the composition, pointing to the artifice of the scene, and also showcasing their own ability to paint something as lifelike as the drapery hanging in front of a picture.



6. Andrea del Sarto “Assumption of the Virgin”



7. G. Bellini “Madonna with Saints“                  8. Rafael “The Sistine Madonna”







1. Pieter Bruegel the Older “The Fall of the Rebel Angels”      (“Upadek zbuntowanych aniołów”)

“The Fall of the Rebel Angels” depicts the most powerful angel along with the other fallen angels that have been banished from heaven. Angels are falling from the sun in a stacked manner along with ungodly creatures, presented in the grotesque, ugly or distorted, half-human and half-apocalyptic form/shape. that Bruegel created. 

The work details the first confrontation between Good and Evil, even before the Fall of Man, when the most powerful angel turns upon the divine authority.


2. Pieter Bruegel the Older „The Babel Tower”        (“Wieża Babel”)

The vast, partially constructed tower dominates the painting “The Tower of Babel”. Surrounding the structure is a landscape dotted with tiny figures, some of whom march in procession around its curving stories, while others toil at the scaffolds along its sides. To the right, ships unload building materials; in every respect of detail, the painting is minutely, naturalistically accurate.

The paining was created around the Biblical tale of the Towe of Babel. In so doing, Bruegel chose a story intended to provide a moral directive around the dangers of over-reaching ambition. 




1. Pieter Breugel the Elder “The Fall of the Rebel Angels”                     2. Pieter Breugel the Elder „The Babel Tower”





1. Hieronymus Bosch  “The Temptation of St. Anthony”     (Kuszenie św. Antoniego”)

The Temptation of St. Anthony depicts his trials in different stages. St. Anthony is a heroic representation of man faced with various ugly demons with bodies made from vegetables, animal, human and lifeless parts. Such monstrous creatures typify Bosch's artworks and The Temptation of St Anthony is his greatest example of the consequences faced by sinners in the depths of Hell.

The background landscape is conveyed with acute detail which adds to the terrifying tone of this work and enforces the reality of Hell awaiting those who have deviated from God and all that is good. The artist's portrayal of man's struggle against temptation and the omnipresence of the Devil is one of the best examples of his personal iconography.



1. Hieronymus Bosch “The Temptation of St. Anthony”







Copyright the Queen Jadwiga Foundation